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Magnetic Force

Using Permanent Magnets as a Source of Energy

I have no reason to think this will work; I expect nothing to come of it; but I'm willing to investigate this anyway because it is interesting. And the more I look into this; the more interesting it gets.

This device is based on the curious fact that magnets do not need to have equal and opposing force to release the magnetic grip between them. This is demonstrated by the following example; this is an example of concept and not the device:

Using two identical electromagnets (EM), EM A is running at 100 watts. EM B is not active, so A is attached to the core of B with the attraction associated with 100 watts. When you increase the power of EM B to 50 watts, it releases the magnetic grip and we move it away 3 centimeters. Then, when the power is removed from B; A is attracted to the core of B with the force associated with the attraction of a 100 watt EM to the target. Then we again increase the power of B to 50 watts for the release. It would seem that every time we do this, we have a difference of 50 watts. These values are an example. I have not done this.

If that difference of 50 watts could be gained using permanent magnets (PM), we would gain the difference from the intrinsic properties of the permanent magnet, instead of the electrical current of an EM.

I noticed something that is interesting. When using much smaller magnets with much smaller surface field gauss there is still an opposition to a larger magnet. It may be that you need very very little power to release the grip. You may only need enough power to create a magnetic field of the same polarity. Any field with like polarity of any strength past the de-magnetization of the metal core will release the grip. When the metal core of the EM has the PMs at there closest approach, the core becomes magnetized. The current has to overcome this magnetic field.

This energy source transfers magnetic energy from permanent magnets attached to pistons, rotating a crankshaft to provide an energy source. The pistons move through non-magnetic sleeves with the electromagnets at the heads of the cylinders. The faces of the permanent magnets approach the faces of the electromagnets as close as engineering can accomplish.

The device uses the attraction force of permanent magnets against the non-magnetized metal core of electromagnets and then the ability of an iron core target to become magnetized only enough to release the magnetic grip of permanent magnet to spin a crankshaft. The orientation of the magnets is such that the north poles of the magnets face the north poles of the electromagnets at the release phase (FIG. 1).

The timing of the application of current to the electromagnets at the release phase is such that at the near moment of the magnets closest approach to the non-magnetized electromagnets surface and the full use of the magnetic attraction; current is applied so that the electromagnet becomes active causing the slight repulsive force of the two north poles to release the initial magnetic grip between the magnet and the non-magnetized metal core of the electromagnet. The sequential action of magnetic attraction of the piston to the non-magnetized electromagnet core and then the zero state/release force of the newly activated magnetized electromagnet core drives the device (FIG. 2).

The device provides energy for all electrical and motive uses. The device is especially useful in applications that need low heat, low noise, applications that need little or no external energy source and/or applications in remote locations. This device is a source of electricity and a source of motive power. It can be a source of electricity by connection the crankshafts to standard generators. It can be a source of motive power by connecting wheels, propellers or any other need for motive power to the crankshafts.

Timing circuitry is used to distribute the current at the appropriate times to the electromagnets. The start sequence is achieved by manipulating the current to the electromagnets such that rotation is achieved.

The functioning rotation sequence is as follows:

Initial State - The permanent magnets of cell one (1) of the array are positioned to be as close to the non-magnetized core of the electromagnet as possible (FIG 2). The permanent magnets pistons of cell one (1) are attracted to the non-magnetized core of cell one (1). The pistons of cell two (2) are positioned by the crankshaft and piston rods to be at the optimum positions, waiting for the release of the magnetic grip in cell 1.

Pulse Phase - A current large enough to release the magnetic grip between the permanent magnet and the electromagnet is introduced to the coil of the electromagnet of cell one.

Release Phase - When the magnetic grip of cell one (1) is released, the permanent magnets of cell two (2) are at a distance from the core of the non-magnetized electromagnet that the piston is attracted to the non-magnetized core of the electromagnet of cell two (2).

Motive Phase – The permanent magnet pistons of cell two (2) move to the closest approach to the non-magnetized core of cell two (2). The crankshafts and piston rods move the pistons of cell one (1) away from its core. The crankshafts and piston rods move the pistons of cell three (3) into optimum position, ready for its motive phase.

Repeat Next Initial Phase – The permanent magnet pistons of cell two (2) are now in their initial phase, waiting for the electric pulse to release the magnetic grip. Sequence repeats across the array to create power source.

The configuration of cells may be of any number. They may be arranged in any way desirable. They may be stacked vertically, horizontally or at any angle desired.

Electronics:

Specific variations and changes in the application of the current to the electromagnets are used to maximize the output. For example, one can introduce an electric pulse in the form of a sine wave, sawtooth wave, stairstep wave, square wave, etc. The waveform of the applied current maximizes the attraction and repulsion related to the system.

When current is applied to the coil as a pulse, the metal core of the EM becomes magnetized. When the pulse ends there is a residue magnetic field. This field dissipates over milliseconds. The retraction of the pistons should match this dissipation so the sawtooth decrease of the magnetic force matches the attractive force of the PM as it moves away from the EM. The EM needs to produce a sawtooth wave of force of like polarity over the length of the PM’s retraction. Tests will be done to determine this.

The dissipation of the magnetic field created in the EM should match the speed the PM is moving away from the EM. We need to have a sawtooth force happening so the release happens over the length of the retraction; the dissipating magnetic field’s sawtooth shape should nicely match the retraction distances of the PM at the proper RPM.

When you pull a PM away from an EM of like polarities the needle moves in the direction of the pull; this happens in all cases, whether they are north or south polarity. If you pull a PM from the right of an EM the needle moves to the right. If you pull a PM from the left of an EM the needle moves to the left. If you pull two PMs away from an EM, one from each side, the two forces cancel. Therefore there is no induction caused by this device. There may be electromagnetic forces at work in all these cases, but induction is defined by a change in current, and if there is no change in current there is no induction. We would have to make up a new word to describe the forces at work when the pulls cancel and what work this is.

The electrical bundle contains all electronics needed for control, timing, and distribution of electricity, capacitance, and all other electrical and electronic needs. Capacitors can be used to store any EM shut down spike.

A wiring harness connects all relevant parts with appropriate current.

Connectors on the electrical bundle can connect to any peripheral devices for any use.

Mechanical:

The device can be attached to any connecting and/or assist devices such as gears, chains, pulleys, belts, flywheels, hydraulic systems, transmissions or any other connecting device or devices to maximize energy output for use in any application needing energy.

A flywheel may or may not be necessary. This will have to be determined.

A starter motor may or may not be needed to start rotation. This will have to be determined.

The permanent magnets/electromagnet cells are analogous to reciprocating linear pistons used to drive a crankshaft. Crankshafts and cams should be of the most efficient design. For example, the length of the piston movement may be such that it optimizes the advantage of angular momentum such that each cam angle is less than 90 degrees. It may be that the length is just the distance that there is an appreciable force between the permanent magnet and the non magnetized core target; where the other pistons positions are all within the length of that appreciable force.

Electromagnet Core:

The core of the electromagnet should be of a material or materials that exhibit the best characteristics in maximizing the operation of the device. The device may benefit by having a split core design. For instance, if the coil is four inches long,

The energy of a powerful magnet being drawn to the non-magnetized metallic target of an electromagnet core is of a greater value than the electrical energy needed to magnetize the electromagnet core enough to release the magnetic grip between the permanent magnet and the electromagnet; by turning the target core into an electromagnet of the appropriate polarity.

To illustrate how energy is being obtained from the permanent magnets by this device, consider an electromagnet and a permanent magnet of equal surface field strength, say 10,000 Gauss.

Consider the energy of the permanent magnet being attracted to a non-magnetized metal target core of a EM as “F”.

Consider that the target core now becomes magnetized with such energy that it is equal to the permanent magnet with the same field strength (F). A repulsion exists.

Now consider the amount of energy needed to make the target slightly magnetized; just enough energy to release the magnetic grip of the permanent magnet against the electromagnet, not a force equal to the permanent magnet. We don’t want equal opposing forces; we want just enough force to release the magnetic grip. This force is < F.

The permanent magnets are pulled away from the electromagnet in cell one by the attraction of the permanent magnet to the non-magnetized target core in cell two, possibly with the help of inertia from a flywheel. Sequence repeats through the array.

Therefore on every motive phase, the energy one obtains is the difference between F and < F.

This is a trick of time and space, gaining the energy of a permanent magnet being drawn to a target, then moving it back to its original position by another separate attraction and possible flywheel inertia, while negating the original attraction. There is independent intrinsic energy obtained by a magnet completing its attraction to a target that is more than the energy needed to release its magnet grip.

Instinctively, I feel that more energy is produced by the attraction than is needed to release the magnetic grip. My instincts have been wrong before; and if this gain is enough to overcome friction, turning a generator and supplying current to the electromagnets, I will be pleasantly surprised.

But to date I have not been able to find anyone that can determine the amount of energy needed to release the magnetic grip. I don’t know how much of a magnetic field is needed to cause the release of the magnetic grip. I don’t now how much current is needed to produce that field. I don’t know the mechanical efficiency of the device. I have learned that the efficiency of a typical generator can be as much as 95 percent. I can not find the efficiency of an electromagnet. These are some examples of having to do experiments to find the data. I am working on that. Add in possibility using the inertia of a flywheel to pull the permanents back and I am lost; capacitors, sigh; gap needed to avoid actual impact of magnets and core, shakes head in resignation. Hopefully I can get some help.

The material of the core should be such that it minimizes retaining a magnetic field and heat production. It should be of a material that maximizes the field strength. I know nothing about electromagnet core materials. Modifying the shape of the electromagnet’s core may gain some advantage.

The force needed to release the magnetic grip has to be less that that of the full force of the permanent magnet pull, for if you had the force of the permanent magnet equal to the force of the electromagnet there would be a palpable repulsive force. We don’t want a palpable repulsion.

Please understand that I don’t know enough about magnetism to even come close to analyzing this mathematically. I defer to others. If you can add to this, let me know. And please understand that I know of the laws of thermodynamics, but I feel that this is a unique enough design to take a look at. I feel this is about using the differences in time and space, not breaking the laws of thermodynamics.

If you can get energy from a magnet going one way, then move it back using substantially less energy; that would rock.

Here is a company that makes electromagnets:

Click “Round Electromagnets” to see a product list.

Specs of:

70A0007 –

Diameter: 2”

Watts: 5.2

Pull lbs: 220

It appears that a very low wattage is able to create a very strong field.

I’ve called many electromagnet manufacturers trying to get a handle on the efficiency of electromagnets. They seem to have no way to do that. And this is a basic piece of information needed. Generators have an efficiency of up to 95 percent. This would means that if you pump 100 watts of energy into it, you get 95 watts of energy out of it.

Here’s a company that supplies super magnets:

http://www.kjmagnetics.com/proddetail.asp?prod=DY0X0

Specs of:

DY0X0 –

Diameter: 2”

Pull Force: 231.55 Lbs

Surface Field: 7100 Gauss

Brmax: 13,200

Bhmax: 42 MGOe

Here’s the magnet info for the above:

http://www.kjmagnetics.com/neomaginfo.asp

Here are the physical properties:

http://www.kjmagnetics.com/specs.asp

Here’s the pull force table:

http://www.kjmagnetics.com/pullforce.asp

Here’s the surface field table:

This all depends on how magnetic fields work, and the characteristics of the release mechanism of magnetic attraction. How much of a magnetic field do you need to create to release a magnetic grip? And how close engineering can get the two surfaces together; there is a big drop off the bigger the air gap.

So far I don’t have the ability or the money to build one. I’m gathering pieces bit by bit, but I’m having a hard time coming up with crankshafts and camshafts and someone that can design electronic timing circuits.

I am hesitant to spend the effort to actually build one because intellectually I can not yet accept that it will work, but somehow I am drawn enough to the concept to at least investigate this.

I know, it should be real easy to build one, right. It’s sort of like me asking you to walk a tightrope between two buildings. Sure, some people can do it, but can you?

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows a typical, but not necessarily the only, configuration the permanent magnets, electromagnets and camshafts; forming the basic cell the device.

1) Piston rod;

2) Electromagnet;

3) Permanent magnets.

FIG. 2 shows a basic configuration of an array.

1) Power output, wiring harness;

2) A generator;

3) Electronics, electrical bundle, capacitors, switching, et al;

4) A battery;

5) A generator;

6) A crankshaft;

7) A camshaft;

8) An electromagnet;

9) A permanent magnet;

10) Cell 1 of rotation sequence;

11) Cell 2 of rotation sequence;

12) Cell 3 of rotation sequence;

13) Cell 4 of rotation sequence;

14) Cell 5 of rotation sequence;

15) Cell 6 of rotation sequence;

FIG. 3 shows an isometric view of a basic configuration of an array.

Here’s a list of questions that need to be answered. Please send me any data needed that I don’t have and I will include it. Please send me any data that answers any of these questions and I will include it. To make the math easy we will use permanent magnets with a surface field strength of one tesla.

What is the optimum size of the face of the permanent magnet?

Diameter:                   2 inches

What is the optimal surface field strength of the permanent magnet?

Strength:                     1 tesla (10,000 gauss)

How much power is needed to be added to an electromagnet’s core to release the magnetic grip of a one tesla permanent magnet from the non magnetized core of the electromagnet?

Wattage:                    7 watts

What is the value in joules or watts that is obtained by the completion of the motive action of the permanent magnet to the non-magnetized core of the electromagnet? What is the mathematical calculation that determines the kinetic energy in joules resulting from a one tesla magnet closely approaching a metal target.  Mathematical calculation that determines the kinetic energy in joules resulting from a one-half tesla magnet closely approaching a metal target.

Preliminary calculations on a .7 tesla magnet.

Per Face:

Per Cell:

What is its mechanical efficiency?

Efficiency:                  95 %

What is the efficiency of the generator?

Efficiency:                  95 %

How close will engineering be able to get the surfaces of the permanent magnet and the electromagnet?

Distance:                    .5 - .4 millimeters

What is the surface field loss from a reasonable air gap between the permanent magnet and the electromagnet?

Efficiency:                              40%

What is the electromagnets’ efficiency?

Efficiency:                              95 %

Do capacitors help the system? What should their values be?

Capacitors:                ?

Value:                         ?

What is the optimal core winding of the electromagnet?

Winding:                     ?

What gauge wire should be used for the windings?

Wire Gauge:              Yes

What voltage should the system be?

System:                      12 volt

Can you modify the shape of the electromagnet’s core to get an advantage?

Shape:                        ?

Would a flywheel’s inertial energy benefit the system?

Flywheel:                    Yes

Will a starter motor be needed to begin the rotation?

Starter:                       No

What are the optimal specifications of the electro magnet? Remember, we don’t have to match the strength of the permanent magnet, just enough to release the grip.

Diameter:                               2 inches

Length:                                   3 inches

Surface Field Strength:        .6 tesla (6000 gauss)

Wattage:                                5 watts

What is the number of pistons in relation to the size of the cams to create the most optimum distances between the permanent magnet and the core?

Number of pistons:                ?

Piston Movement Length:    ?

What are the revolutions per minute of the crankshaft?

Revolutions per Minute:        60 – 600

What does the electromagnetic current waveform look like? Is it instantly full on, then full off. Is it full on, then a slight reverse current to flush magnetism remaining in the core?

Waveform:                             Sawtooth

What is the amount of current needed to release the magnetic grip of the PMs?

Current:                                  ?

What is length of the release pulse?

Length of Pulse:                    10 – 100 milliseconds

What should the core of the EM be made of?

Material:                                 Iron alloys with Si and other materials, transformer                                                           laminates.

How much current, induction or impedance is produced by a one tesla permanent magnet moving away from the newly magnetized target core?

Induction:                                This device creates no induction.

Experiment to determine what it takes to release the magnetic grip of a PM attached to the metal core of an EM. Hang an EM vertically with a PMs attached to the core on top and on the bottom. Increase the current to the EM until the PM falls off. Measure the current needed to accomplish this.

Experiment to determine what it takes to release the magnetic grip of a PM attached to the metal core of an EM. Hang an EM vertically with a PMs attached to the core on top and on the bottom. Increase the current to the EM until the PM falls off. Measure the current needed to accomplish this. Measure how long a current pulse is needed. We need this in watt seconds. A determination should be made to determine the length and amplitude change over time of the pulse.

The weight of the PMs I have is 193 grams. The pull force surface field of the magnets I have is 76514 grams. Gravity acting on the PM to cause it to fall is almost insignificant compared to the pull force. And unless you match this dissipation with the retraction, the natural pull of the PM will interfere. So it should be somewhat of a usable test, but flawed until we match the speed of the retraction with the dissipation of the EM’s temporary magnetic field. The RPMs of the crank needs to be so the retraction of the piston matches the pulse and dissipation of the EM field. I hope to do an experiment to determine the length and amount of the dissipation.

I encourage everyone to add to this document if they wish by emailing me at (take out the spaces):

koretech @ live.com